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Five Thousand Years of Civilization - An Account of  Indian History.

India's cultural tradition dates back 4,000 years. No region in the world, except China, has inherited a civilization so continuous & unbroken as that of India. India's most significant attribute has been her ability to retain her own identity despite numerous foreign invasions. No other region in the world can account for this experience.

Ancient India includes the Harappan civilization (3000-1500 BC), the Vedic Age (1500-300 BC), the rise of Buddhism and Jainism (600-400 BC), the Mauryas (321-185 BC), the post-Mauryan invasions (200 BC-300 AD), the Gupta Age (320-606 AD), and the smaller kingdoms (500-800 AD).

Medieval India starts with the advent of Islam and comprises the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526), the Vijayanagara (1336-1565), and Bahamani (1345-1565) kingdoms, and religious movements (15th century) by Kabir, Nanak (Sikhism) or the Bhakti and Sufi cults.

Modern India includes the Mughal dynasty (1526-1707), the Marathas under Shivaji and the Peshwas, the advent of Europeans and the East India Company (1498-1754), British expansion and administration (1757-1857), cultural awakening (the 1857 revolt onwards), and the Indian Nationalist Movement until Independence.

Indian Money

The unit of currency in India is the rupee. Coins of denominations 0.25, 0.50,1, 2 & 5 are used and paper currency above the value of  Rs.2 is in circulation. A newspaper costs about two rupees. 

Indian National Flag
                 The Indian Flag

India's flag is made up of three horizontal bands of colour;  they are, (top to bottom), saffron yellow, white and green. The saffron yellow symbolizes the spiritual nature of India, as saffron is the colour worn by sadhus or Hindu holy men. The white bar symbolizes peace, while green symbolizes wealth through agriculture. In the middle of the flag is a blue wheel, symbolizing the importance of truth and honesty.

Major Indian Wildlife Sanctuaries

India has various wild life sanctuaries. Some of them are.. Corbett National Park, in Uttar Pradesh, the home of the tiger and many other species, and a favourite centre for people on wildlife-viewing safaris, Gir Forest, in Gujarat, the home of I the Indian lion, Kaziranga National Park, in Assam, the home of the one-horned rhinoceros,
Sunderland Swamps in West Bengal, the home of crocodiles and the Royal Bengal tiger, Dachigam National Park, in Kashmir, the home of the Kashmir stag or hangul, Ranthambhor National Park, in Rajasthan, another tiger sanctuary and for more... ( click here )

India's Scheduled Languages

India is the only region which can boast of the unity amongst people speaking various languages and following various religions. The languages spoken include...

Hindi : The national language, is spoken widely throughout Northern India and also by people speaking various regional languages. Sanskrit : a language of scholars is not commonly spoken today. It is the language from which Hindi was derived. 
Kashmiri : is the language spoken in the region of Jammu and Kashmir. Sindhi : is the language of the Pakistani province of Sind, but is also spoken in India by the people from that region. Punjabi : is spoken by the inhabitants of Punjab state, and many more in Pakistan. Urdu :  is spoken in various parts of India and is also the national language of Pakistan. Gujarati : is spoken by the inhabitants of Gujarat. It is also an important business language. Marathi : is spoken in and around Maharashtra. Bengali : has its speakers in West Bengal, as well as  in the neighbouring country, Bangladesh. Oriya : spoken by the inhabitants of Orissa. Asamese : the language of Assam, has few speakers. Telugu : people of   Andhra Pradesh speak this language, Tamil : is spoken in Tamil Nadu as well  in some parts of Sri Lanka, Kannada: is spoken in Karnataka. Savji (Khatri): is spoken by Somavanshiya Sahasrarjun Kshatriya (SSK) Samaj, Malayalam : is spoken in Kerala.

GEOGRAPHY

India and some of its neighbours are separated from the Tibet and Sinkiang regions of China, and from Soviet Central Asia, by the great mountain barrier comprising of the three great ranges, the Himalayas, the Karakoram and the Hindu Kush. It is this mountain barrier which has protected India from various outside influences. Many of the world's highest mountains, including Mount Everest, are in these ranges. The area that this mountain barrier surrounds,  includes India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh and is often referred to as the Indian subcontinent. Away from the mainland, India comprises of several small island groups namely - The Andaman and Nicobar islands which are to the east in the Bay of Bengal ( between India and Indonesia).  Off India's southwest coast, in the Arabian Sea, are the Lakshadweep islands.  Not many people live on these islands, but they add to India's coastline, which in total is 3,530 miles (5,650 kilometers) long.

 

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